W.H.O defines blindness as “ VISUAL ACTIVITY OF LESS THAN 3/60
( SNELLEN SSCALE) Or its equivalent or in absence of the chart testing “
INABILITY TO COUNT FINGERS IN DAYLIGHT AT A DISTNJACE OF 3
INCIDENCE : - 2 Million cases of cataract induced blindness in the country.
CAUSES OF BLINDNESS :-
- CATARACT :
The principal cause response for 50% to 90% all cases . Cataract occurs more frequently in advancing age . it is curable by surgery.
- TRACHOMA :
Estimated cases are about 86 million in India.
- MALNUTRITION :
Vit – A deficiency can result in permanent blindness.
- OTHERS :
1.2% of cases in India are due to eye injuries.
HOST FACTORS: Trachoma, conjunctivitis and malnutrition’s are important. Causes blindness in children. Cataract, glaucoma and diabetes are causes of blindness in middle age. Accidents and injuries can occur in any age.
OCCUPATION : Industrial and agricultural workers and those who work with machines are at great risk.
SOCIAL: Twice more common in poorer classes.
Social Factors :-
- Poor hygienic
- Lack of health services.
By improving nutrition Ex: Vit – A supplement .Proper treatment of
infectious diseases. Implementation of safety standards , use of safety
PRIMARY EYE CARE : -
Locally trained health worker can treat eye infection at grass root level.
SECONDARY CARE :-
Conducting eye camps, identifying the cataract and other cases and treating them. Voluntary and govt health services are doing this service.
At medical colleges and referral eye hospitals at national level.
SPECIFIC PROGRAMME :-
Trachoma control, School eye health services, Vit – A supplements as prophylaxis.